Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Ladies study composed task - Essay Example All things considered, they secure positions for themselves on account of the mindfulness brought to them by the women's activist hypotheses. They need to come out of the repression of their homes to work at standard with men. Yet, they need to confront badgering by men, which diminishes their activity execution and occupation fulfillment. They are compelled to do as the business says or are compelled to confront unfriendly conditions in the event that they deny. For instance, minority ladies experience the ill effects of lewd behavior since they have a place with minority gatherings. Subsequently, they face twofold danger, as found by Berdahl and Moore (426) in their examination. They affirm that Ã¢â¬Å"Women experienced more inappropriate behavior than men, minorities experienced more ethnic badgering than Whites, and minority ladies experienced more provocation by and large than dominant part men, minority men, and lion's share womenÃ¢â¬ (Berdahl and Moore 426). Thus, inappropr iate behavior is perhaps the most concerning issue that ladies face at the work environment. Household or spousal maltreatment is characterized as the maltreatment wherein one life partner causes his partner to experience physical or mental abuse with the goal that he may show his impact and authority. Ladies are inclined to abusive behavior at home than men. It is difficult for ladies to end aggressive behavior at home once it begins. Men abuse their spouses to fulfill their pride, and furthermore act cherishing now and again to keep the last remain in the relationship in order to give the feeling that they have improved, which doesn't occur. In the end, the dissatisfaction prompts scorn and insubordination creating inside the ladies. Abusive behavior at home is a type of sexual orientation savagery (Berdahl and Moore 260), and it prompts distinct mental issues and enthusiastic breakdowns because of which the ladies may plan to surrender or murder their accomplices. Separation rates are additionally on the ascent, and one of the principle explanations behind this is abusive behavior at home. In the event that the couple has youngsters, local
Saturday, August 22, 2020
How nourishment identifies with bone wellbeing - Research Paper Example The accompanying examination will assist the peruser with understanding the key structure obstructs that are required by the body so as to perform and keep up a solid skeletal framework. Right off the bat, and most clearly, calcium just as nutrient K and nutrient D are the most fundamental and significant structure squares of appropriate bone quality and nourishment. In spite of the fact that calcium is what is essentially engaged upon concerning keeping up appropriate bone thickness and wellbeing, both nutrient K and nutrient D help to direct the degrees of calcium in the circulation system just as to support and dishearten how this calcium is combined inside the bone marrow itself (Marian 440). In spite of the fact that this nutrient and supplement are regularly referenced at the same time with bone wellbeing and nourishment, hardly any people comprehend the procedures that every one of these play in appropriate bone wellbeing. Right off the bat, nutrient D is changed over to what is known as calcidiol in the liver. When this transformation has occurred, the calcidiol is then siphoned through the circulatory system with the sole plan of trying to manage the degrees of calcium and phosphate that exist in the circulation system. Calcidiol acts along these lines as a hormone to control levels of aggravates that exist all through the body (Price 143). By acting in this administrative style, the body can utilize the calcium and phosphate levels that are in the circulatory system so as to appropriately fabricate solid bones. Similarly, nutrient K assists with controlling the degree of calcium restricting that happens inside the bone structure. Moreover, notwithstanding calcium and nutrient K, D, the body needs to keep up satisfactory degrees of magnesium; the second most copious mineral, after calcium, in the skeleton. Magnesium has a large group of utilizations concerning bone wellbeing; be that as it may, for the reasons for this short investigation it can comprehended to have a direct and significantly significant impact on the boney framework that assists with giving bones their thickness and
Friday, August 7, 2020
Cause and Effect Essay Topics, Samples, Tips When you get a Cause and Effect Essay as home assignment, what do you feel? You are lucky if you love to write just anything about anything. But what if you are just an ordinary student, probably, there will be many doubts of how to formulate those easy cause and effect essay topics. Let us suppose you have found some of them over the web, though then, you shall be wondering how much they correspond with this essay category. The list of doubts may be endless. Cause and Effect Essay Meaning We hope to be helpful for you to go through this task with minimum losses of time, nerves and your score. Before checking the topics though, let us check, what a cause and effect essay is, especially let us have a look at its structure and ideas. Here, we have some good news for you: writing a proper essay isnât so difficult as it seems at first sight. Just follow the structure, and you are there! Though, when you check details, and it is normally about details when we speak about perfection, then you will notice that you may need some useful tips and even examples to get out. Why Strong Essay? Why you might want a strong essay? â" yep, somebody may still ask that. But we donât ask that kind of questions, as we understand your reasons very well. A strong essay can be the only chance to get a higher score, to have a test passed, or a way not to lose the score that you have almost guaranteed, if not this paper. Exactly this good essay can become just a part of a chain consisting of strong essays. Nobody wants to spoil all study results just because of one essay. These are though just the short-time effects. The long-time effects could be even such as being accepted in a college of your dream, and a successful career in future. Hence, you know what a strong essay can bring you. Then, why not find out which topic is really yours? Essay What One Shall Write About? You definitely will not find valuable ideas for cause and effect essay topics just anywhere. You will come across thousands of sources and endless topic lists. Though, they arenât always helpful as you have to select your topics, the topic, which will bring your writing to the top level, which will show all your writing potential. Let us think then, what topic could do that. Normally, people write well about something that is interesting personally for them, that is up-to-date and that somehow worries them. Hence, you will do the right thing if you select the ideas that express your mind, the condition of your soul. If you have selected several topics, thatâs ok as well, just note them. Ok then, finally, some topics are chosen, those, among which you may find the best cause and effect essay topics. Then, the next step is to find out about which topic your inner writer wants to write. Just write. First of all, try one topic. Check how it goes, how you feel. If it is too stressful, if you squeeze out your ideas, leave it. Try another topic. Review the topics once more and stop by the one about which the writing flow is free. After determining, which topic responds to your soul condition, outline the plan for your paper. Here, there is nothing special or unusual, all is about following some usual pattern: Introduction. Make your reader understand, why among all interesting cause and effect essay topics exactly this one spoke to the depth of your soul. Problem definition. Define the problem that shall be discussed in your assignment. Be short and clear, as the reader likes to understand all without making excessive efforts. Problem background.Details and again, those little details. Among all good topics for cause and effect essay, you selected the most appropriate one. Reader still doesnât know it? Then, explain it! Effects. Hmm, that is already clear, isnât it? Conclusions. Conclusions, as it usually goes. One thing though: be precise. Your Topic is Important You understand that your topic is a special one, among all those good topics for cause and effect essay. Your topic is important, it is something meaningful for you, only then you will make it important for others. Where to Check Topic Samples No need to search through waste lists of topics for a cause and effect essay, just concentrate on those that can really bring your essay to a success, just check our website. Doesnât matter if you study sociology, or politics, or any other specialization, by us, you for sure will find something that will touch you. The next step is just to find the one that touches the soul. Moreover, we have not just selected the most frequently met cause and effect essay example topics, we thought, you maybe will want to have a quick look at samples, written in different writing manners. Just have a look at those sample cause and effect essay topics, or maybe you prefer checking the essays published in our website? Just check how people write, the structure, pick up those special signals to connect the paper parts or just get a general idea. Or maybe you will have a wish see how others write and based on this, you will shape something unique? We just have defined the main points. Though it depends just on you know how to use the mentioned ideas to create interesting cause and effect essay topics, to formulate them into something unique, that expresses the essence of the idea. We understand as well, that nobody can foresee everything. You may not come across anything useful, despite of the wide range of cause and effect essay ideas topics offered by us. We still want to be helpful. We defined some advice, that you can use to write a perfect essay. Select the topic close to you; Be precise in formulations; Write in simple though correct language; Do not allow deviations from the topic; Clearness and simplicity â" we better call those the key words of the success of your paper. Conclusion A perfect essay is not just about skills and writing experience. Find the topic, outline how the paper shall look and just go for it, the best essay!
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Discuss the relationship between character and location in the case of Magwitch and the marshes; Miss Havisham and Satis House (chapters 1-19) Both the characters Miss Havisham and Magwitch are linked closely with their respective surroundings, as Dickens employs imagery and pathetic fallacy to illustrate this. Although many characters in Great Expectations reflect their environments, the relationship of Miss Havisham and Magwitch offer a particular contrast. The novel echoes many of DickensÃ¢â¬â¢s own life experiences, and the reader is given a strong flavour of Victorian history and commonplace. There is no doubt that when Dickens describes the marshes in the early stages of the novel, he is influenced by his own passion for theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦PipÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination is left to run wild, and by blending a childÃ¢â¬â¢s view of things with the more detached attitude of an adult narrator, Dickens creates a world of violence and humour. Magwitch and the marshes are similar in the way they are both shrouded in mystery. On the one hand, we have the mist and the natural elements of the marshes which make the environment appear mysterious, and then the convict, who Pip knows little of, and indeed it is not until the end of the novel that Pip realises Magwitch has been supplying him with secret sums of money. Miss HavishamÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Satis House is deeper, perhaps more sinister. When Pip first witnesses Miss Havisham, he remembers being taken to see, Ã¢â¬Å" a skeleton in the ashes of a rich dress, that had been dug out of a vault.Ã¢â¬ Like the interior of the house, the overgrown garden and the disused brewery are suggestive of Miss HavishamÃ¢â¬â¢s own decayed and barren, misused body. The idea of the emptiness of possessions, which is to be a recurring theme in the novel, is also underlined by the meaning concealed in Miss HavishamÃ¢â¬â¢s name. The, Ã¢â¬Å"Have a shamÃ¢â¬ reflects how this gaunt woman has been warped in time by the pretence of the wedding. The Ã¢â¬Å"SatisÃ¢â¬ name of the house means Ã¢â¬Å"enoughÃ¢â¬ and one could conclude that the building is tired of all the neglect. Miss HavishamÃ¢â¬â¢s body reflects the festering of herShow MoreRelatedCreating Tension Through the Presentation of Magwitch and Miss Havisham in Great Expectations1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHow does Dickens create tension through his presentation of Magwitch and Miss Havisham in Great Expectations? Introduction ============ Great Expectations is about a young boy, Pip, who lives in a deprived town with his sister (Mrs Joe) and her husband (Mr Joe). Pip meets a fugitive, Magwitch and after meeting with this runaway he fears from his life. Pip is then summoned to go and play at Miss HavishamÃ¢â¬â¢s house. He then falls in love with Estella who chooses to ignore Pip, which makesRead More Great Expectations - Miss Havisham and Abel Magwitch are Living through Others1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGreat Expectations - Miss Havisham and Abel Magwitch are Living through Others In the work Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens, two characters live their lives through someone else. Miss Havisham and Abel Magwitch are both elderly and though someone else are able to obtain their goals that they are not able to complete themselves. Abel Magwitch lives his life through the protagonist Pip while Miss Havisham lives her life through the character Estella. Miss Havisham is an aged, mysteriousRead MoreBenefactors In Great Expectations1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBenefactors In the British classic Great Expectations, Charles Dickens uses a pair of benefactors who greatly contrast each other to represent the dual social mindsets of society. Elusive convict Abel Magwitch appears hostile to readers in the beginning of the story, but he later reveals himself as a selfless laborer, working vigorously to finance young PipÃ¢â¬â¢s journey into becoming a gentleman. In contrast, Miss Havisham is a venerable old woman who was jilted on her wedding day and raises her adoptedRead MoreEssay on The Theme of Imprisonment in Great Expectations1056 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Theme of Imprisonment in Great Expectations Ã Ã Ã Ã The renowned poet, Richard Lovelace, once wrote that Stone walls do not a prison make, nor iron bars a cage. Although many think of a prison as a physical building or a jailhouse, it can also be a state of mind. A great number of people are imprisoned mentally and emotionally. Charles Dickens expresses this message in his eminent novel, Great Expectations. This book is about a simple laboring boy who grew into a gentleman, and slowlyRead MoreGreat Expectations1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGreat Expectations Human nature is the psychological and social qualities that characterize humankind. Human nature separates humans from the rest of the animal kingdom. The underlining theme of human nature is evident in Great Expectation by Charles Dickens use of his characters. A main characteristic that Dickens displays is friendship. The friendship between Pip and Herbert is strong. Herbert was significant to PipÃ¢â¬â¢s growth in social class and eventual to his revelation. Ã¢â¬Å"Friendship was oneRead MoreGreat Expectations: Self-Sacrifice722 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn Great Expectations, the author uses self-sacrifice as a meaningful symbol. A few characters in the book are continually sacrificing a part of themselves to others or sacrificing physical aspects to others. Characters Magwitch, Pip, Miss Havisham, and Estella are examples of people who self-sacrifice themselves throughout the book. Magwitch, a convict who is wanted by the law, desires to financially aid Pip by converting him into a gentleman; Pip, an innocent boy who has yet to learn about theRead MorePipÃ¢â¬â¢s Character Change in Charles Dickens Great Expectations1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPipÃ¢â¬â¢s Character Change in Charles Dickens Great Expectations Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens is a compelling story rich in friendship, love and fortune. The main character, Pip, is a dynamic character that undergoes many changes through the course of the book and throughout this analysis, the character Pip, will be identified and his gradual change through the story will be quoted and explained. The main character, Pip, is a gentle character. His traits include Read MoreGreat Expectations: Secrets1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBailey Baith Great Expectations Adv. English 11 March 9, 2013 Secrets A secret always has reasoning behind how long it is kept hidden and when it is revealed. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s always a perfect time and place for one to share oneÃ¢â¬â¢s secret. Uniquely books have secrets embedded within to keep the reader on edge. If used wisely by the author, a secrets purpose can affect a novelÃ¢â¬â¢s story line, character development, and theme. Every secret throughout DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ novel Great Expectations is effectively keptRead MoreGreat Expectations by Charles Dickens1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAP Great Book Assignment: Great Expectations The 544-page, Bildungsroman novel, Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens is considered a classic because it has stood the test of time, appealing to generation after generation of readers while still remaining relevant to them. Published in 1861, Dickens created a coming-of-age story that is similar to his other novel, David Copperfield, but Great Expectations is considered to have reflected parts of his own life. There are several parallels betweenRead MoreComparing the Characters of Magwitch and Miss Havisham in Great Expectations by Dickens917 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesComparing the Characters of Magwitch and Miss Havisham in Great Expectations by Dickens Miss Havisham is a bitter old woman. She wants to seek revenge on all men for the wrong that was done to her by one man. She lives in her clothes that she should have worn to her wedding and is surrounded by decaying things in a darkened room. Miss Havisham adopts a young girl Estella, whom she has planed to use her to seek revenge on all men. Miss Havisham is delighted in the way Estella
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3639 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Organisations are multifaceted and human behaviour in an organisation is even more complex and unpredictable. Hence, Organisational behaviour is needed. Organisational behaviour is the study of human behaviour in the organisation and how knowledge about human behaviour is useful in improving an organisations effectiveness. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The concepts behind the organisational behaviour:" essay for you Create order Its main purpose is to find out ways through which people can work more effectively. It deals in a methodical way to study and research in a theoretical development, getting information about different activities of other organisation. Organisational behaviour provides: Analysis of different levels in an organisation. Help in understanding the complexities involved in interpersonal relations of two or more people. View to look and manage the organisations as systems which have inter-organisational relationship. Holistic view of managements behavioural approach and not representing the whole management. A platform to coordinate between two different cultured groups. Organisational behaviour is the study of what people think, feel and do in and around organisation. Organisational behaviour researchers systematically study individual team, and organisational-level characteristics that pressure behaviour within work setting. Organisational behaviour is interdisciplinary field and its appearance can be traced back to Human Relations Movement stimulated by Hawthorne experiments during 1920s. The idea of scientific management, propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor, had come up with fundamental principles of the subject based on Motion and Time Studies, which were introduced in industry in the United States on a large scale. The major contributions of the scientific management have been (i) standardization of work; (ii) equality in payments of wages, and (iii) precision in training.1 2. The challenging nature of Work Organisation: The effective management of people takes place in the context of wider environmental setting, including the changing patterns of organisations and attitudes to work. It is frequently documented that a global economy, increased business competitiveness, the move towards more customer driven market, advances in systematic knowledge, especially telecommunication and office automation, have led to a period of constant change and need for greater organisational flexibility. The power and influence of private and public organisations, the rapid spread of new technology, and the impact of various socio economic and political factors have attracted increasing attention to the concept of corporate social responsibilities and business ethics. Increasing attention is also being focused on the ethical behaviour which underlies the decisions and actions of managers and staff; and many responsible organisations and professional bodies now choose to publish a code of ethics. The changing na ture of organisations and individuals at work has placed increasing pressure on the awareness and importance of new psychological contracts. Forces of global competition and turbulent change make employment guarantees unfeasible and demand a new management philosophy based on trust and teamwork. People are seen as a responsibility and a resource to be added to. Employees need to abandon the stability of lifetime employment and embrace the contact of continuous learning and personal development. 3. The Nature of Organisational Behaviour System: Organisational behaviour is concerned with the study of the behaviour of people of people within an organisation setting. It involves the understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour. Common definitions of organisational behaviour are generally along the lines of: the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, and patterns of structure in order to help improve organisational performance and effectiveness. There is a close relationship between organisational behaviour and management theory and practice. Organisational behaviour is of interdisciplinary nature which integrates the behaviour science with other social science. From the disciplines, it helps to improve the relationship between people and organisation. A lot of research work and conceptual framework is emerging to ascertain human behaviour. It has now become a separate field of study whose principles, concepts and processes are synthesized. It is mainly meant for solving the orga nisational problems which are only related to human behaviour. 4. Challenges and Opportunities: In recent year many challenges and opportunities are emerging in organisational behaviour which is: An employee is becoming older. Expectations of the employee are fast changing. Loyalty towards organisations has faded away. Competition is increasing day by day forcing the organisations to increase there productivity. Globalisation of business is forcing workers to change themselves to new cultures and environment. Thus, now a day organisational behaviour has taken a significant role in the organisation to face the new challenges taking place throughout the world. The following are some critical matters facing managers for which organisational behaviour provide solution. Diversity of Workforce- Through organisations are becoming cosmopolitan yet people work together but maintain there separate identities. Manager should learn to respect this diversity as it can help in creating innovation and decision making in the organisation due to different perspectives on various problems. Demographic of work force- Couples of pursuing professional career which is hindering organisational flexibility in getting and development talents. Young people with professional qualification are joining the organisation as they are more preferred. Young people are ambitious, enthusiastic and have desire for learning. Employees expectations are changing- Due to changes in the work force demographics employees attitude, aspirations and expectations have also changed. They do not care for job security, attractive wages, housing facilities and quality of working. Employees require empowerment and quality of status. Globalisation- The internationalization of the business world has made a great impact on the organisations. These days the managers must be more flexible and proactive as he has to deal with work force of other countries which have different needs and attitudes from there own country. Even in there own country they have to face different problems due to dealing with people having different culture and background. Thus the manager need to know and understand their different culture and then adopt a suitable method to get cooperation from them. 5. Organisational Behaviour Modification: Definition of organisational behaviour modification by Robbins is- Organisational behaviour modification is a programme where managers identify performance related employee behaviours and then implement an intervention strategy to strengthen desirable behaviours and weaken undesirable behaviours. Organisational behaviour modification meant for improving the organisational effectiveness. It is derived and developed from the concept of skinners operant conditioning. If refers to eliminate or modify the undesirable behaviour and change it with the more suitable behaviour for goal attainment. The manager should observe the overt behaviour of the person and then modify it accordingly. Steps in organisational behaviour modification: Identify complex behaviour- First identify the complex behaviour which is applicable to organisational performance of the employee. Complex or critical behaviours such as absenteeism, tardiness, complaints of not doing work etc; should be identified through the employee and his superior. Impact of the behaviour- Now it is necessary to measure the impact of such behaviour. If the impact is under tolerable limit then it requires no action otherwise it is necessary to change it. Analysis of the behaviour Now the analysis should be done which involve full examination of the behaviour of the employees. This refers why an organisational behaviour modification is used to change critical performance behaviour. Intervention An intervention strategy is required to deal with: the identified critical behaviour to change and the factors causing such behaviours Evaluation Finally it desire to evaluate the working of the intervention strategies and to see that they are changing the undesirable behaviours for improving the performance. The positive change means that the strategies are successful otherwise other appropriate strategies should be applied to get the desired result. 6. Motivation: The term motivation is derived from the Latin word moveve which means to move. Motivation is what drives a person into doing something. Much of what we do is driven by the thought of a potential reward, or a consequence can be obvious tangible benefits, such as financial reward; enjoyment; or the risk of these being taken away through loosing once job. There are also other benefits that are less obvious, but which still motivate people to do something such as an internal satisfaction; or feeling of achievement. Grazier provides a useful referencing indicating that the expectation of a benefit is a major reason that somebody would be motivated to do something. Each day brings with it an endless list of decisions to be made. The process of making those decisions is driven, in large part, by the hope of benefit of the fear of a consequence. The concept of motivation is related to, but distinct from other concepts, such as instincts, drives, and reflexes. Motivated behaviour is u sually goal-oriented; the goal may be associated with a drive such as hunger or thirst (called primary motivation). However motivation is also closely tied to sensory stimuli: an animal will not usually exhibit eating behaviour unless food is presented. Unlike instinctive behaviour, motivation depends on affect. Finally motivation can be learned (in which case it is called secondary motivation) and typically elicits more complex behaviours then simple reflexes. Motivation is: The force that compel people to move and instigate them to act. To create an urge or desire to do some better performance. To in calculate enthusiasm in them so that they can take initiative in doing the work. To generate the willingness to use there best effort in performing their work. Thus, motivation is to include an act to get the desired goal. It is a process that motivates the drives or aspirations to achieve some object. As a matter of fact performance depends upon motivation as it aff ects the productivity and quality of the work. Definitions of Motivation: 1. Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals. Scott 2. Motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desired, aspirations, strivings, needs direct control or explain the behaviour of human beings. Mac Farland 3. Motivation is a process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activities behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentives. Fred Luthans Characteristics of Motivation: Motivation has very importance in each field of life. Here are some characteristics of motivation: Motivation requires some urges of desires which can be fundamental or for ego-satisfaction. Motivation is goal directed as it has to fulfil some need. Motivation starts by internal feeling of an individual. Motivation is the driving force to get satisfied for achieving some goals. Motivation is a continuous process as all the needs are not satisfied at a time. Motivation work in totality of a person. Motivation is the main factor in inspiring the employers. Importance of Motivation: Organisational efficiency of any organisation depends upon motivation. It is the most importance factor as it deals with the behaviour of the employees. Performance depends upon behaviour which is a mixture of ability and motivation. Thus, motivation is important as: It generates will to do the work. For example- a person has the capacity to do the work but if he is not willing to do it the capacity becomes useless. Resources in an organisation can be best utilized if the motivation is directed towards attaining the organisation goals. Motivational plans in an organisation reduces labour problem i.e., absenteeism or indiscipline etc. Through motivation the organisation can increase its production and productivity as the employees will employ full efforts to use correct methods, systems, or technology effectively. Motivation produces in workers to carry out the work allocated to them for achieving the goal set by organisation. Through motivation employees will u se fill knowledge and skills to complete the work satisfactorily so that the organisation can satisfy their personal and social needs. Thus, the motivation force is dynamic which must be satisfied by achieving the goal. Motivation requires effort which should persist and more through the direction of goal. Further, motivation is very important in an organisation to improve the behaviour of its employees towards their work and to direct them for achieving them target set by organisation. The efficiency of work is also enhanced if the people are well motivated. As without motivation the technology systems and methods all becomes ineffective. To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of an organisation it is necessary to improve the performance of its employees which can be determined by two factors: Level of Ability and Affect of Motivation These can be summarised as follows performance = Ability*Motivation Theories of Motivation: The nature of human beings is complex hence no generalization could be formed on motivation theories. Thus, the various theories of motivation are classified into main categories. These theories based on: Human needs theories by: Maslow Herzberg Mc Clelland Human nature theories by: Mc Gregor Quchi Argyris Expectancy of Human Beings theories by: Vroom Porter and Lawler Human Needs Theories Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory: It is based on human needs. The behaviour of a person at a particular time is usually depends upon his strong need. An individual first fulfils his basic needs and then seeks to satisfy other higher needs. Maslow believed that once a need is satisfied it no longer serves to further motivate him. He was of the opinion that needs have priority. As soon as lower level need is satisfied, other next higher level needs emerge. He arranged the basic human needs in a hierarchy as follows: Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Esteem needs Self actualisation needs B. Human Nature Theories Mc Gregors Participation Theories: The managements dealing with his employees in the organisation depends upon certain assumption and generalizations towards the behaviour and nature of their employees. Mc Gregor has given two alternative views of human behaviour based on their participation as worker. They are: Theory X- Negative Theory Theory Y- Positive Theory Theory X- The following assumptions about human nature are negative in approach: People usually dislike and avoid work. Need to be directed and controlled. People are lazy and avoid responsibility. Avoid leadership and prefer to be lead. Lack of self motivation and ambition. Theory Y- The following assumptions about human nature are positive in approach: Have great potential for work. Can be motivated to achieve organisational goals. Self motivated and taken initiative. People want to learn and show responsibility. People want rewards, recognition and appreciation. C. Expectancy of Human Beings Theories Vrooms Theory of Expectancy: This theory was developed by Victor H. Vroom. It is a process theory which is concerned with topic How motivation Occurs? This theory deals with the variables of motivation and their inter relationship. According to it motivation is the: Sum of all values which lead to some action. Through it employee achieves some level of his job performance. His effort depends upon the outcome of his performance, i.e., the reward or value he obtains to satisfy his goals. It can be depicted as follows: Employee-Effort-Performance-Reward Thus, this theory suggests that the effort one places on a particular work to get the desired performance in getting the related value or reward. 7. How an organisation can benefit with motivation: First class card at Ritz Carlton Hotel, Champs cards at Yum Brands, telephone calls from the CEO of Keyspan, and various celebrations for good performances at Panafric Hotel are designed to maintain and improve employee motivation. Motivation refers to the forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour.3 Motivated employees are willing to extent a particular level of effort for a certain amount of time to ward a particular goal. Motivation is one of the four essential drivers of individual behaviour and performance and, consequently, is an integral component of employee engagement. An engaged workforce is an important predictor of an organisations competitiveness, so its easy to see why employee motivation is continuously on the mind of corporate leaders. The quest for a motivated and engaged workforce has not been easy, however. Most employer-92 percent of them, according to one major survey- say that motivating employees has become more challenging. Three factors seem to be responsible for the increasing challenge. First, globalization, information technology, corporate restructuring, and other challenge have dramatically altered the employment relationship. These changes potentially undermine the levels of trust and commitment necessary to energize employees beyond minimum standard.4 Second, in decade past companies typically relied on armies of supervisors to closely monitor employee behaviours and performance. Even if commitment and trust were low, employees performed their jobs with the boss watching them closely. But most companies thinned their supervisory ranks when they flattened organisational structure to reduce cost. Supervisors now have many more employees, so they cant possibly keep a watchful eye out for laggards. The third challenge is that a new generation of employees has brought different expectations to the workplace. A few years ago various writers disparaged generation-X and generation-Y employees as slackers, cynics, whiners and malcontents. Now we know that the problem wasnt their lack of motivational potential; it was that employers didnt know how to motivate them. It seems that many companies still havent figured this out. According to one report more than 40 percent of employees aged 25 to 34 sometimes or frequently feel demotivated compared to 30 percent of 35 to 44 year olds and just 18 percent of 45 to 54 year olds.5 Hotels and other firms are returning to good old fashioned praise and recognition to motivate staff. Share options can evaporate and incentive plans might backfire, but a few words of appreciation almost always create a warm glow of satisfaction and renewed energy. The challenge of recognition is to catch employees doing extraordinary thins. Keyspan Corporation chairman Bob Catell resolves this by regularly asking managers for list of unsung heroes at the New England gas utility. He calls an employee every week, often spending th e first few minutes convincing the listener that the CEO really is calling. They start by saying, hey you cant fool me, this isnt Catell! But once they realize it is me, they are pleased that I would take the time to do this. Along with recognition from managers, approximately one third of large American firms rely on peer recognition as one way to motivate employees. Among them is Yum Brands Inc., the parent company of KFC, Taco bell, and Pizza Hut. Yums restaurants around the world use a recognition program in which employees reward colleagues with Champs cards, an acronym for KFCs values. The Ritz Carlton Hotel in Kuala Lumpur, which is rated as one of the best places to work in Asia, applies a similar peer recognition process using First Class cards. Nancy Teoh, Ritz Carlton Kuala Lumpurs human resource manager, explains that congratulatory message or words of appreciation are written down by any member of the team to another and even as far as from the hotel and corporate se nior leader. Teoh adds, This serves as a motivational aspect of the work environment.6 So motivation is very important for growth and better service in any industry. I am going to explain importance of motivation through these two case studies: Buddys Snack Company is a family owned company located in Rocky Mountains. Buddy forest started the business in 1951 by selling home made potato chips out of the back of his pickup truck. Now days Buddys is $36 million snack Food Company that is struggling to regain market share lost to Frito-Lay and other fierce competitors. In the early eighties Buddy passed the business to his son, Buddy Jr., who is currently grooming his son, Mark to succeed himself as head of the company. Six month ago Mark joined Buddys Snacks as salesperson, and after four months he was quickly promoted to sales manager. Mark recently graduated from a local University with an MBA in marketing, and Buddy Jr. was hoping that mark would be able to implement strat egies that could help turn the company around. Once Marks initial strategies was to introduce a new sales performance management system. As part of this approach, any salesperson who receives a bellow average performance rating would be required to attend a mandatory coaching session with his or her supervisor. Mark forest is hoping that these coaching sessions will motivate employees to increase their sales. This case describes the reaction of three salespeople who have been required to attend a coaching session because of their low performance over the previous quarter. (Russell Casey, Clayton State University, and Gloria Thompson, University of Phoenix) Mergers have roared back in corporate America, and with them have come highly lucrative payouts for the executives who triggered or accepted the acquisitions. One example is Gillette CEO James M. Kilts, who received a whopping $165 million, including stock options and severance, for selling the razor maker to Procter Gamble . Bruce L. Hammonds, CEO of MBNA Corp., was apparently promised $102 million in connection with the credit card companys acquisition by Bank of America Corp. Further behind but still well ahead of the average employees lifetime income is Toys R Us Inc. CEO John H. Eyler, who will receive cash and benefits worth about $63 million when the struggling toy retailers is purchased by an investment group. But several observers say these special perks are blatantly unfair. Others point out that bonuses perversely reward the people who made the company vulnerable to takeover.7 (Business Week) 8. Conclusion: Understanding the behaviour of organisations arises from combining the basics of the sciences or disciplines indicated with a number of more general and overtly subjective assertions. The total picture is incomplete, ever-changing and continually developing. The drive is therefore towards as complete an understanding as possible rather than absolute illumination. This understanding is based on the application of methods of research and inquiry that are capable of relative evaluation. This also concerns the validation and consistency of results and conclusions, especially when the divergent and conflicting nature of the different perspectives is considered. Ultimately, conclusions and predictions about human, and therefore organisational, behaviour are always subject to measures of uncertainty and interpretation. Organisation behaviour is very important in business and our personal life as well. We have to organise everything. I have to attend class then want to study at home the n assignment, everything should be organised and same thing applied in Company.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Schema as Hirsch has defined it is an Ã¢â¬Å"unified system of background relationshipsÃ¢â¬ that allows people to understand the Ã¢â¬Å"surface meaningÃ¢â¬ of a statement (Hirsch 54). If people can find ways to influence students about things that are important in the world, they would grow up connecting series of things important nowadays, and end up having the knowledge to choose what they can do next. If a person contains schema about environmental problems, and how to solve them, they would automatically put things side by side and build a solution for it. We will write a custom essay sample on Schema or any similar topic only for you Order Now With the help of schema, people most especially students can be able to focus on what is important in the society today. If the student graduates with the mental ability to know automatically what is right for their health and be aware of the environment problems, they can lessen the cause of it and the world would be a better place. If the student graduates with the general knowledge of choosing healthy foods, obesity would be lessened and if they graduate with the general knowledge to be aware of what they do to the environment, global warming would slow down. In the end, since schema cannot be taught, institutions should change the curriculum to teach information that will inform the schemata, so that the generation to come would automatically do what is right for them and for the environment. How to cite Schema, Papers
Friday, May 1, 2020
Questions: Assignment Task: 1) Assume you have invested half of your savings in a risk-free asset and half in a risky portfolio P. Is it theoretically possible to lower your portfolio risk if you move your risk-free asset holdings into another risky portfolio Q? In other words, can you ever reduce your risk more by buying a risky security than by buying a risk-free asset? (15 marks) 2) Is it possible that the holdings of an open-end fund are worth much more or less than what the shares of the fund are trading for? Explain with clear examples supported and referenced with relevant data. This question is designed to test your familiarity with sources of financial information which you will need collate market for valuation purposes. You will therefore be marked on solid demonstration of this capability (30 marks) 3) If a firm repurchases 1% of its shares, does this change the capitalisation of the stock marketon which it is listed? If a firm distributes 1% of its value through dividends, does thi s change the capitalisation of the stock market on which it is listed? You are required to explain your reasons including: i) Impact of share repurchase on market capitalisationii) Impact dividend payment on market capitalisation Answers: 1. In the share market, traders can mug high instability in the traders portfolio. Occasionally, the trader can have low instability in the traders portfolio. The condition of the market in the share market does not stay in the high-quality mood for long period of time. For a while, the share market can have a better time for the investors and sometimes the share market can have worst time for the investors. The condition of the share market completely depends on the economic condition and the political condition of the country (Xu, Yasinzai and Lev, 2013). If the trader trades some of the traders funds in a risk free assets in portfolio P and some of the traders funds invests in the portfolio which is risky. The trader should carry on their trading by keeping three gears in mind: a) The trader who is trading in the market should keep different types of bonds in the risky portfolio, different types of equity and different types of mutual funds in the risky portfolio. This is because if the trader face bad mood of one asset then the portfolio of the trader can be balanced by the other assets. b) In the portfolio, the trader should not keep only the blue chip shares because the cost of the share which is blue chip is quite high. If the market price of the share which is blue chip, falls down then the trader will face loss and the rate of return from the portfolio will also fall quite harshly (Santoro and Wei, 2008). That is why the research analyst suggest to pick different types of assets in the portfolio which may ensure huge amount of profit from the traders risky portfolio. c) The trader should always think about how to deduce the unsystematic risk to the group whose size is small and are from different industries. The volatility of the portfolio can be reduced by the investor by using the following steps: Beta: The instability of a share can be calculated by beta. The beta of a share means that the market price of the share will be in velocipede. If the worth of beta of a share is equivalent to less than one that means the instability of the share as compared to the overall market situation of the stock is less (Poterba, 2004). If the worth of the beta is more than one that means the instability of the share as compared to the overall market situation of the stock is more and the equity can react further sternly. The trader can minimize the instability by trading the highly rated value beta stocks and substitute them with low rated beta stocks. Hedging: The strategy of hedging means when the investors can gets into the position of long or in the position of short in the stock market and the investor can use the strategy of hedging. When the portfolio is made by the investors, the traders should carry on trading by keeping in mind that all the securities or the stocks cannot provide the profit to the trader (Xu, Yasinzai and Lev, 2013). The investor may face loss while trading in the stock market. To deduce the loss acquired by the traders should hedge their portfolio with various stocks or equities so that the loss faced by the trader from one stock gets reduced by earning a profit from other stocks. Bonds: When the trader has the factor of high risk in the traders portfolio, then the trader may earn less amount of return from the investment of the trader. At the time of earning less money from the investors investment, the trader may try to find a place which is safe to invest the traders investments (Lease, 2000). If the trader wants to reduce the risk factor from the traders portfolio, then the trader can invest the money into the bonds. The trader may earn a huge amount of money by trading the bond. Cash: The trader should have modest amount of money with the trader. This is because at the time inflation if the stock price or the collection of stocks goes downwards then the trader can buy new stocks which will make the portfolio less risky (Idowu et al., 2013). When the stock price goes high the trader can put up for sale out the stocks and can earn a huge amount of profit from the stock which can be reduce the loss occurred by the other portfolio of the stocks. 2. Open ended funds means the compilation of shares which can be reclaim and concern at any time. The fund of open ended is mainly offered in the developed countries. The trader can directly trade the stocks unswervingly from the open ended fund. The other term of open ended fund is big pool of money. The open ended funds have lots of money in the fund. This money belongs to the traders (Xu, Yasinzai and Lev, 2013). The open ended fund is estranged into units. The investors have right to trade at any time in the open ended fund. The funds of the open ended fund get larger in size, when the traders invests their money in the open ended fund. The cost of the unit in the open ended fund is determined in regular basis. The unit price of the open ended fund is computed by the values of equity, the values of bonds and by the values of other resources. This unit price of the asset of the open ended fund gets divided by the total amount of resources (Kari, Karikallio and PirttilaÃÅ'Ãâ , 2009). Open ended funds invested in: An open ended fund usually invests in both the shares and bonds. The open ended fund also keeps money in hand for opportunity in the future and the open ended fund also devoted in the derivative market. The money which is kept for the future purpose to control the portfolios are saved (Cohen, 2012). The main reasons for investing money in an open ended fund by the investors: When the trader wants to trade in the open end fund, the fund manager of the open ended fund will direct the trader about the assets which can be purchased by the traders. The major objective of the manager of the open ended fund is to give high return to the trader as compared to the asset investment made by the trader (Bell and Jenkinson, 2001). The major cause of trading the money in the open end fund by the trader is to get the high return. After earning the gain from the trading, the trader will invest again in the open end fund. The trading in the open ended fund will make the fund much bigger. The two main kinds of open ended funds are: Unit trusts: The price of unit trust is dual price. When the trader trades the unit trust, a percentage of money is inculpate by the manager of open ended fund (Krause, 2006). The difference of the cost price and the selling price of the unit trust is the gain margin of the trader. Open ended investment companies: The open ended investment company is consists of single unit price. The unit trust is now transformed into the open ended fund. Forward Pricing: One of the important features in the open ended fund is forward pricing. The major function of forward pricing is while trading the units in the open ended fund, the trader do not know the current price of the unit until and unless the trading gets completed (JordaÃÅ'Ãâo and Sousa, 2010). For example: In the afternoon time at 12 o clock, the fund gets its tag. If the trader wants to trade units in the morning and placed a bid for the unit from the fund. The traders do not have any information about the buying price or the selling price of the unit. 3. 1) Impact of share repurchase on market capitalisation: When a company repurchase the share, which means the company is trying to pay no attention to the taxation part of the industry. Repurchasing of share always make an effect on the dividend policy of the stock holder. The industry is allotting the money to the share holders. This reflects that the company is thinking about the wealth of stake holders (Hopkin, 2008.). Many share holders always wants to keep the shares of the company with the stock holder. This is because when the market price of the stock increases, the share holder thinks that the company will declare dividend to the share holders of the company. At that time some of the share holders repurchase shares of that company to get the high dividend from the company. This will make the stock holders to increase the rights of the company in a superior division. Hypothetically, repurchasing of the stocks of the company will not alter the market price of that exact share in the stock market. The trouble faced by the stock holders are the price of the market of the stocks gets minimised by the total value declared as a dividend to the stock holders (Holmes, 2002). The main cause of this brochure is the company aims on the shares of the company but concurrently, the worth of the company gets deduced by the equivalent quantity of money spent in stocks buy back. According to the rule of taxation, the buying back of shares of the business treats the gain of the business as the total profits. When the stock holders get the income from the business profit, the stock holders have to give taxation to the government. As the dividend earned by the stock holder is fully taxable, that is why the stock holder should pay tax to the government. The dividend earned by the stock holder of a company is treated as the capital gain of the stock holder (Crouhy, Galai and Mark, 2000). Company always thinks about the wealth of the stock holders that is why the company always distribute its profit as dividend and distributes the companys profit to the share holders. Sometimes, the company wants to reinvest the profit in the business, that time the company refused to pay the dividend to the share holders of the company. This will allow the company a rapid growth in the market. This will help the company to reinvest in new project and the company can earn more pro fit. 2) The impact of dividend payment on market capitalisation: The policy of dividend in a company means distributing the profit margin earned by the company among the share holders of the company. Another policy of dividend means the reinvesting the profit earned by the company in the new projects to earn more amount of money. The policy of dividend is related to distributing the profit margin among the share holders of the company and reinvesting the profit margin in the new projects of the company to earn more profit margins. Many analysts of the company studied the impact of dividend policy of the company and came to a conclusion that the dividend paid by the company is treated as the risk factor of the company. The size of the company, the leverage of the company and the dividend policy of the company are dependent on each other. It is treated as the risk factor of the company. If the Beta value of a company is higher, then the company is having high risk factor and the company will pay lower amount of dividend to its share holders (Agrawal, 2009). This reflects a negative amalgamation between the policy of dividend of a company and the risk factor of the company. This shows that if the company has high beta value then the dividend paid by the company is low. Another unification of business analysts studied the associations flanked by the dividend policy to the stock holders and the instability of the current price of the share in the market. When the current price of the business is very unstable in the market, the business should not to pay out the dividend to the share holders of the company if there is high risk factor. If the business still wants to distribute the gain margin between the stock holders of the business, then the concern is thinking about wealth of the share holders and secondly, the corporation wants to be a magnet for more stock holders in the direction of the company so that the stock holder will spend more in buying back of the stocks of the company due to the dividend payment. This will make more efficient to the business fund and can reinvest in new projects of the corporation to get more gain margins from the new projects. When an entity deduces the amount of money by distributing the money as dividend by the con cern to the stock holders, then the entity worth of the equity falls down by the same amount of dividend paid by the concern to its stock holders. References: Krause, A. (2006). Risk management. Bradford, England: Emerald Group Pub. Lease, R. (2000). Dividend policy. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press. Gleditsch, N. (2002). The peace dividend. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Crouhy, M., Galai, D. and Mark, R. (2000). Risk management. New York: McGraw Hill. Poterba, J. (2004). The impact of population aging on financial markets. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research. Holmes, A. (2002). Risk management. Oxford, U.K.: Capstone Pub. Bell, L. and Jenkinson, T. (2001). New evidence of the impact of dividend taxation and on the identity of the marginal investor. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research. Casey, K. (2009). Dividends. [Bradford, England]: Emerald. Kari, S., Karikallio, H. and Pirttila, J. (2009). The impact of dividend taxation on dividends and investment. Munich: CESifo. Libby, R., Libby, P. and Short, D. (2011). Financial accounting. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Jordao, B. and Sousa, E. (2010). Risk management. New York: Nova Science Publishers. Tuller, L. (2008). The small business valuation book. Avon, MA: Adams Business. Idowu, S., Capaldi, N., Zu, L. and Das Gupta, A. (2013). Encyclopedia of corporate social responsibility. Berlin: Springer. Agrawal, R. (2009). Risk management. Jaipur, India: ABD Publishers. Cohen, M. (2012). The eclipse of 'elegant economy'. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Pub. .Jordao, B. and Sousa, E. (2010). Risk management. New York: Nova Science Publishers. Appendix: Tesco has outstanding shares of 10,000 and the total income of Tesco is $ 100,000. The market price of the share of Tesco is $ 40. If the company buys 1 % share repurchase then The current EPS of Tesco is = $ 100,000 / 10,000 = $ 10 per share P/E ratio = $40 / $10 = 4 With a 1% stock repurchase by Tesco Tescos outstanding shares will reduced to = (10,000 * (1 0.10)) = 9000 shares Therefore, Tescos outstanding shares are reduced to 9,000 Therefore, Tescos EPS = $ 100,000 / 9000 = $ 11.12 The Tescos shares trade on 4 times earnings, Tescos new share price will be $ 41, an increase from the $ 40 per share before the share repurchase.